Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial disease of cattle that occasionally affects other species of mammals. This disease is a significant zoonosis that can spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of unpasteurized milk. In developed countries, eradication programs have reduced tuberculosis in cattle. Bovine tuberculosis is still common in less developed countries, and severe economic losses can occur from livestock deaths, chronic disease and trade restrictions.
Bovine tuberculosis results from infection by Mycobacterium bovis, a Gram positive, acid-fast bacterium in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of the family Mycobacteriaceae. Cattle are the primary hosts for M. bovis, but other domesticated and wild mammals can also be infected. Known maintenance hosts include brush–tailed opossums (and possibly ferrets) in New Zealand, badgers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, bison and elk in Canada, and kudu and African buffalo in southern Africa. White-tailed deer in the United States (Michigan) have been classified as maintenance hosts; however, some authors now believe this species may be a spillover host that maintains the organism only when its population density is high. Species reported to be spillover hosts include sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, ferrets, camels, llamas, many species of wild ruminants including deer and elk; elephants, rhinoceroses, foxes, coyotes, mink, primates, opossums, otters, seals, sea lions, hares, raccoons, bears, warthogs, large cats (including lions, tigers, leopards, cheetahs and lynx) and several species of rodents. Most mammals may be susceptible.
Early infections of tuberculosis often don't show any clinical illness. In countries with eradication programs, most infected cattle are identified early. In the late stages, common symptoms include progressive weight loss, a low–grade fluctuating fever, weakness and not eating. Animals with respiratory involvement usually have a moist cough that is worse in the morning, during cold weather or exercise. In the later stages, animals may become extremely thin and develop sudden respiratory distress. Greatly enlarged lymph nodes can also obstruct blood vessels, airways, or the digestive tract. If the digestive tract is involved, intermittent diarrhea and constipation may be seen. In deer and other cervids, bovine tuberculosis the rate of progression is variable. In some animals, the only symptom may be abscesses of unknown origin in isolated lymph nodes, and symptoms may not develop for several years. In other cases, the disease may be spread out, with a rapid, sudden course.