Novel Swine Enteric Coronavirus Disease (SECD)
Novel swine enteric coronavirus disease (SECD) is a disease in swine caused by emerging porcine coronaviruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). Different strains of PEDV exist with different virulence levels. SECD is characterized by an acute, rapidly spreading viral diarrhea of pigs; no other species are known to be affected and it is not a public health threat. Pigs develop varying degrees of diarrhea and inappetence depending upon age of the pig infected.
Reporting Swine Enteric Coronavirus Disease
As mandated in the federal order, veterinarians and producers must report suspect, presumptive-positive and test-positive herds. Please use the case definitions below to determine reportability of cases:
- Suspect herd: A swine herd in which one or more age groups are affected with acute, contagious, watery diarrhea.
- Presumptive positive herd: A swine herd with one or more positive pigs, tested by PCR, VI, and/or viral genetic sequencing, with either nonspecific, unknown or no clinical signs or history consistent with SECD.
- Confirmed positive herd: A swine herd with one or more confirmed positive cases, that include pigs that:
- Tested positive for PEDV, PDCoV, or other emerging swine enteric coronavirus by PCR, VI and/or viral genetic sequencing; and
- Have a history of clinical signs consistent with SECD.
To report PEDv or other swine enteric coronaviruses to the State Veterinarian please call 307-328-2655307-328-2655.
Your swine farm’s national premises identification number (PIN) must be listed on the laboratory’s submission form. This allows diagnostic laboratories to report test results and also eliminates the need to list your name and address on the submission form.
PEDV and PDCoV may appear clinically to be the same as Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) virus with acute diarrhea. Producers will need to work with their herd veterinarian if any TGE-like symptoms appear and as always, maintain strict biosecurity protocols.
- PEDV and PDCoV are viruses similar to Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE), another disease only affecting pigs. It is not zoonotic, so therefore it poses no risk to other animals or humans. Also, SECD poses no risk to food safety.
- PEDV and PDCoV are transmitted via the fecal-oral route and may appear to be the same as Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) virus with acute diarrhea within 12 to 36 hours of onset. Herd veterinarians remain well versed in managing TGE-like diseases.
- The viruses are members of the Corona family and causes clinical signs very similar to TGE (Transmissible Gastroenteritis) including:
- acute outbreaks of severe diarrhea and vomiting
- significant mortality (50 - 60%) in piglets 7 days of age and younger
- incubation in 1 - 4 days
- Laboratory testing is the only way to diagnose SECD and it is a reportable disease.
- As always, producers who see any signs of illness in their pigs should notify their herd veterinarian immediately to address the issue.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)
PEDV was first reported in the United States in 2013 and quickly spread throughout the country. PEDV has also been reported in Canada and Mexico and is suspected in Central America, Colombia, Peru, and the Dominican Republic. PEDV is thought to be widespread throughout most regions of Western and Central Europe and Southeast Asian countries, including China and Japan. PEDV is currently a source of concern in Asian countries, where outbreaks are often more acute and severe than those observed in Europe. Severe outbreaks with high mortality are typically rare in Europe, but recently have been commonly reported in Asia. China has seen a large increase in outbreaks since 2010, and the emergence of new strains has been attributed to this increase.
Porcine Delta Coronavirus (PDCoV)
PDCoV was first reported in China in 2012. It was subsequently detected in the United States in early 2014, followed by detections in Canada. PDCoV has not been reported in any other countries.