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North Dakota Industrial Commission
Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program
State Capitol, 14th Floor, 600 E Boulevard Ave. Dept. 405
Bismarck, ND 58505-0840
Phone: 701-328-3722 Fax: 701-328-2820
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Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program

Small Research Projects:
Two Sentence Summaries
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LRC-I-2: "SynOps "88 Opportunities in the Synfuels Industry": Program Funding: $10,000; Total Project Costs: $72,750. Objective: To provide information on national and international synfuels research to industry, researchers and policymakers. The conference focused on national and international energy resources and, lignite coal resources available in North Dakota.

LRC-I-3: "Project CFB The Design and Operation of a CFBC Test Facility to Generate Comprehensive Reliable and Accessible Data for Utility and Industrial Clients": Program Funding: $25,000; Total Project Costs: $110,000. Objectives: To design and operate a circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) test facility and to provide comprehensive and reliable data for utility and industrial applications. This project was a three-year program and was continued as LRC-II-9 and LRC-VI-25.

LRC-I-4: "Carbondry Coal Drying Process": Program Funding: $25,000; Total Project Costs: $50,000. Objective: To evaluate upgrading North Dakota lignite in Carbontec's continuous pilot plant. This project was continued under LRC-III-16.

LRC-I-5: "Development of European Markets and Sources for Lignite Technology": Program Funding: $5,000; Total Project Costs: $12,777. Objectives: To establish business and research programs with cooperating European entities, to identify potential European markets for North Dakota lignite technology, to identify European technology for use with North Dakota lignite, to facilitate exchange between North Dakota and European groups and to assist negotiations between interested parties. This program was continued under LRC-II-12.

LRC-I-6: "National Energy Consensus: Demonstrating the Need and the Direction for a National Energy Policy": Program Funding: $10,000; Total Project Costs: $250,000. Objective: To put a national energy policy on the national agenda and assist in task force discussions, and education activities.

LRC-I-7: "Soil Depth and Quality Requirements for Reclamation of Rangelands": Program Funding: $20,730; Total Project Costs: $65,175. Objective: To determine soil replacement depths and quality necessary to meet productivity and species diversity requirements for reclaimed grassland. A goal of this research is to quantify the effect of soil quality, soil and soil texture and topography on diversity and productivity of a given rangeland site. This project was extended into the second year as LRC-III-14.

LRC-I-8: "Study to Determine the Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Long-Term Underground Coal Gasification Test": Program Funding: $30,000; Total Project Costs: $393,501. Objective: To determine the technical and economic feasibility of a long-term, multi-well underground coal gasification (UCG) test leading to process commercialization. This program was continued under LRC-III-17.

LRC-II-9: "Project CFB The Design and Operation of a CFBC Test Facility to Generate Comprehensive, Reliable and Accessible Data for Utility and Industrial Clients": Program Funding: $25,000; Total Project Costs: $110,000. Objectives: To design and operate a circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) test facility and to provide comprehensive and reliable data for utility and industrial applications. This project was a three-year program and was continued as LRC-VI-25.

LRC-I-11: "Project Sodium": Program Funding: $25,000; Total Project Costs: $240,000. Objective: To understand the role of sodium in coal combustion processes. Specific goals in 1988 were ash modification to affect fouling and slagging properties and development of an ash model relating coal composition, combustion conditions and slagging.

LRC-II-12: "Development of European Markets and Sources for Lignite Technology - Phase II": Program Funding: $17,500; Total Project Costs: $44,723. Objectives: To establish business and research programs with cooperating European entities, to identify potential European markets for North Dakota lignite technology, to identify European technology for use with North Dakota lignite, to facilitate exchange between North Dakota and European groups and to assist negotiations between interested parties. This program was a continuation LRC-I-5.

LRC-II-13: "North Dakota Lignite Industry Economic Analysis": Program Funding: $2,500; Total Project Costs: $5,000. Objective: To build a factual economic database on North Dakota's lignite industry and its impact on the state's economy.

LRC-III-14: "Soil Depth and Quality Requirements for Reclamation of Rangelands": Program Funding: $14,730; Total Project Costs: $54,175. Objective: To determine soil replacement depths and quality necessary to meet productivity and species diversity requirements for reclaimed grassland. A goal of this research is to quantify the effect of soil quality, soil and spoil texture and topography on diversity and productivity of a given rangeland site. This project was extended for a third year as LRC-V-22.

LRC-III-15: "Hot Water Drying of North Dakota Lignite": Program Funding: $70,000; Total Project Costs: $670,000. Objectives: To upgrade North Dakota lignite to an export quality boiler fuel, to demonstrate the process on an industrial scale, and to complete the necessary bench-scale and pilot-scale testing required supporting a Clean Coal Technology application.

LRC-III-16: "Utilization of the Carbondry Coal Drying Process for North Dakota Lignite": Program Funding: $10,000; Total Project Costs: $20,000. Objective: To evaluate upgrading North Dakota lignite in Carbontec's continuous pilot plant. This project was initiated under LRC-I-4.

LRC-III-17: "Development of a Prospectus for an Underground Coal Gasification Demonstration Project Near Beulah, ND": Program Funding: $34,861; Total Project Costs: $393,362. Objective: To prepare a prospectus for a long-term, multi-well underground coal gasification (UCG) demonstration project in the vicinity of the Great Plains surface gasification plant. This program was combined with LRC-I-8, resulting in the development of a conceptual model to evaluate UCG options at potential sites.

LRC-IV-18: "Hot Water Drying of North Dakota Lignite II": Program Funding: $70,000; Total Project Costs: $281,000. Objectives: To provide process data on waste streams and waste stream byproducts, to conduct a market assessment of potential markets for beneficiated lignite and to develop a model of the hot-water-drying reactor.

LRC-IV-19: "Six-Inch Diameter Fractionation System for Production of Trade Samples derived from Lignite via Coal Gasification": Program Funding: $75,000; Total Project Costs: $1,468,000. Objectives: To install a high efficiency six-inch diameter fractionation column, to prepare cresylic acid and phenolic distillate trade samples and to characterize the samples.

LRC-IV-20: "North Dakota Lignite Industry Economic Analysis": Program Funding: $4,000; Total Project Costs: $8,572. Objective: To provide a factual economic database on North Dakota's lignite industry and its impact on the state"s economy.

LRC-V-21: "Marketing Options for Cresols and Xylenols in a Global Environment": Program Funding: $28,000; Total Project Costs: $90,000. Objectives: To provide a global market survey of cresol and xylenol isomers, to assist in focusing research and development and to identify the most desirable products for recovery from the Dakota Gasification Synfuels Plant and their subsequent purification and marketing.

LRC-V-22: "Soil Depth and Quality Requirements for Reclamation of Rangelands": Program Funding: $14,430; Total Project Costs: $47,505. Objective: To determine soil replacement depths and quality necessary to meet productivity and species diversity requirements for reclaimed grassland. A goal of this research is to quantify the effect of soil quality, soil and spoil texture and topography on diversity and productivity of a given rangeland site. This study, initially planned as a three-year study, was extended into a fourth year under LRC-VII-28.

LRC-VI-25: "Project CFB The Design and Operation of a Test Facility to Generate Comprehensive Reliable and Accessible Data for Utility and Industrial Clients": Program Funding: $50,000; Total Project Costs: $1,000,000. Objectives: To design and operate a circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) test facility and to provide comprehensive and reliable data for utility and industrial applications. This project was a three-year program with years one and two as LRC-II-9 and LRC-VI-25, respectively. During this third year the program was expanded to include two sorbents and four coals.

LRC-VI-26: "North Dakota Lignite Industry Economic Analysis": Program Funding: $4,500; Total Project Costs: $9,422. Objective: To provide a factual economic database on North Dakota's lignite industry and its impact on the state&'s economy.

LRC-VI-27: "Marketing of North Dakota Lignite": Program Funding: $14,297; Total Project Costs: $29,297. Objectives: To develop a 5-10 year marketing plan that would increase the uses of lignite and to develop a comprehensive database on the lignite-derived electricity customer.

LRC-VII-28: "Soil Depth and Quality Requirements for Reclamation of Rangelands": Program Funding: $16,160; Total Project Costs: $45,571. Objectives: To determine soil replacement depths and quality necessary to meet productivity and species diversity requirements for reclaimed grassland and to quantify the effect of soil quality, soil and spoil texture and topography on diversity and productivity of rangeland sites. This was the fourth and final year of the study.

LRC-VII-29: "Mitre Corporation Study on the Feasibility of Hybrid Coal Liquefaction Concept at Great Plains": Program Funding: $60,000; Total Project Costs: $120,000. Objectives: To perform a site-specific study of the hybrid coal liquefaction plant specific to the Great Plains site, to determine capital cost required for conversion and to project a required selling price to ensure profitability.

LRC-VIII-30: "North Dakota Lignite Industry Economic Analysis": Program Funding $5,060: Total Project Costs: $10,282. Objective: To provide a factual economic database on North Dakota's lignite industry and its impact on the state's economy.

LRC-VIII-31: "Comparative Evaluation of Productivity of Prime and Nonprime Soils": Program Funding: $49,483; Total Project Costs: $110,241. Objective: To compare the productivity of reclaimed prime and nonprime topsoil material found on different positions of landscape such as hilltop, hillside and valley. A goal of the study is to determine whether the separate handling of prime or nonprime topsoil is necessary to achieve acceptable land reclamation. The study was continued into the second year as project LRC-XII-44.

LRC-VIII-32: "Advanced Processing of North Dakota Lignite": Program Funding: $25,000; Total Project Costs: $55,000. Objective: To conduct a preliminary economic evaluation of upgrading North Dakota lignite to an export quality boiler fuel. The study assumed physical cleaning, hydrothermal drying and slurry transport of the upgraded product. A solid lignite fuel could be delivered to the Bismarck, ND area for $1.68/MMBtu and under a different set of assumption fuel could be delivered to Duluth, MN for $1.97/MMBtu.

LRC-VII-33: "SynOps 1992 Conference": Program Funding: $17,500; Total Project Costs: $133,806. Objectives: To bring an international focus on coal’s future, to focus on common problems and opportunities for the lignite industry and to promote opportunities for technology development in North Dakota.

LRC-IX-34: "Development of Methods to Predict Agglomeration and Deposition in FBCS": Program Funding: $200,000; Total Project Costs: $1,200,000. Objectives: To develop advanced ash and deposit characterization techniques, to determine the mechanisms of inorganic transformations that lead to bed agglomeration and ash deposition in FBC systems, and to develop improved means to predict bed characteristics and combustion conditions.

LRC-IX-35: "K-Fuel Processing of North Dakota Lignite": Program Funding: $14,750; Total Project Costs: $29,500. Objective: To upgrade North Dakota lignite by the K-Fuel B process. Specific product quality objectives were moisture reduction of 80%, sulfur reduction of 40% or more, retention of 95% of the total heat content, a heating value of 11,000 Btu/lb and sulfur emission less than 1.2 lbs. of SO2/MMBtu. The quality objectives were not met and the project was terminated.

LRC-IX-36: "Evaluation of Reburning for NOx Control from Lignite-Fired Cyclone Boilers": Program Funding: $205,115; Total Project Costs: $410,230. Objective: To evaluate cyclone reburn technology for NOx control. Overall NOx reduction in excess of 70% was achieved.

LRC-X-37: "Evaluating the Success of Reclaimed Grasslands": Program Funding: $13,500; Total Project Costs: $51,000. Objective: To provide a long-term database on reclaimed grasslands. The goal is to evaluate reclamation regulations for successful vegetation production, cover and species diversity. The data does not show a significant correlation between regulation criteria and reclamation success. Current regulations on reclaimed permanent grasslands are excessive based on the results of this study.

LRC-X-38: "Scoping Study to Determine the Costs of an Environmental Externality Study": Program Funding: $15,000; Total Project Costs: $30,000. Objective: To develop an environmental externality scoping study targeted for the State of Minnesota. National Economic Research Associates, Inc. developed a study that was provided to the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission during the Minnesota externality proceedings.

LRC-XI-40: "Improving the Public Service Commission Guidelines for Evaluating the Success of Reclaimed Grasslands": Program Funding: $5,000; Total Project Costs: $20,000. Objective: To determine the relationship between precipitation, temperature and growing degree-days, and herbage yield; and seasonality and species diversity for various range sites. Data including precipitation, temperature, growing degree-days per season and growing degree-days per month were categorized by month, season, and year and made available for regulatory and reclamation professionals.

LRC-XII-43: "Multiple-Use Marketing of Lignite": Program Funding: $10,000; Total Project Costs: $40,000. Objective: To conduct a marketing study on multiple-uses of lignite. The multiple-use scenarios included treatment of agriculture-processing wastewater, co-generation of steam and electricity and the recovery of lignite combustion byproducts on-site. The study concluded that multiple-use marketing of lignite in this application was not economically viable.

LRC-XII-44: "Comparative Evaluation of Productivity of Prime and Nonprime Soils": Program Funding: $21,698; Total Project Costs: $88,000. Objective: To compare the productivity of prime and nonprime topsoil materials in different topographic positions and to determine whether the separate handling of prime or nonprime topsoil is necessary. The study was continued into the third year as project FY94-XV-49.

LRC-XII-46: "Additive Evaluation for Emission Control and Mitigation of Boiler Fouling and Slagging": Program Funding: $27,000; Total Project Costs: $54,729. Objective: To evaluate the addition of proprietary chemical compounds to the lignite fuel and/or gas stream to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions. The proprietary additives evaluated did not substantially reduce SO2 or NOx emission. It is recommended that further additive development should be done to establish mechanisms involving oxidation of SO2 to SO3.

FY94-XIV-47: "Assessment of Toxic Emissions from a Lignite-Fired Power Plant Utilizing an ESP/Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System": Program Funding: $55,000; Total Project Costs: $1,000,919. Objective: To provide a comprehensive assessment of toxic emission from the Great River Energy Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. Specific objectives were to analyze solid, liquid, and gas input and output streams and to determine removal efficiencies of hazardous air pollutants in the electrostatic precipitator and a wet flue gas desulfurization units.

FY94-XIV-48: "Development of Commercial Grade Naphthols from DGC's Tar Oil": Program Funding: $200,000; Total Project Costs: $465,000. Objective: To develop technology information for the recovery of alpha and beta naphthol from DGC's tar oil stream. The total amount of alpha and beta-naphthol in DGC’s tar oil stream is estimated at 1.3 million pounds per year. Attempts to recover and upgrade the mixed naphthols were unsuccessful and the project was terminated.

FY94-XV-49: "Comparative Evaluation of Productivity of Prime and Nonprime Soils": Program Funding: $21,698; Total Project Costs: $88,000. Objective: To compare the productivity of prime and nonprime topsoil materials in different topographic positions and to determine whether the separate handling of prime or nonprime topsoil is necessary. Analysis of the data show reduced yields during low precipitation seasons. Landscape position, which also reflects soil moisture content, impacts yield. Topsoil depth did not impact yield.

FY94-XV-50: "The Success of Current Soil Depth Requirements of Mineland in North Dakota: an Assessment": Program Funding: $33,960; Total Project Costs: $67,920. Objective: To compare plant yields from land reclaimed under current (1994) regulations, yields from undisturbed sites, and yields from sites reclaimed under previous regulations. A difference between yields on undisturbed and reclaimed lands appears to be due to management practices on the reclaimed and undisturbed land. No pattern related to soil depth occurs in the data, which indicates the current reclamation requirements for soil depth are adequate.

FY94-XV-51: "Mitigation of Air Toxics from Lignite Generation Facilities": Program Funding: $99,924; Total Project Costs: $380,000. Objective: To determine trace element concentrations of the six major lignite mines in North Dakota and to test promising trace element mitigation methods. Trace element analyses are presented. The most effective mitigation method was injection of lignite activated carbon. Additional testing is required to optimize mitigation methods.

FY94-XV-52: "Engineering Feasibility Study of Coal Reburn Application to the Cyclone Furnaces in North Dakota Lignite Cyclone Users Group": Program Funding: $170,985; Total Project Costs: $341,970. Objective: To provide an engineering feasibility evaluation of low-NOx burner technology to determine physical, economic, and technical feasible for retrofit on North Dakota lignite cyclone boilers.

FY94-XV-53: "Physical Cleaning of Lignite": Program Funding: $14,958; Total Project Costs: $29,958. Objective: To produce 100-pound samples of upgraded lignite with reduced sulfur, moisture, and sodium oxide contents. An economic objective of this study is to produce the upgraded lignite for less than $0.05/Mbtu processing costs. Upgraded lignite was produced and further testing was recommended to optimize the methodology.

FY94-XVI-54: "Survey and Demonstration of Utilization Potential of North Dakota Lignite Ash Resources": Program Funding: $80,000; Total Project Costs: $230,000. Objective: To identify beneficial uses of fly ash and bottom ash, to develop information useful in the marketing of fly ash and bottom ash, and to demonstrate improved technologies and uses of combustion byproducts. Eleven sources of North Dakota lignite combustion byproducts were evaluated and characterized for use in concrete, control low-strength material, soil stabilization, and permeable base course.

FY94-XVI-55: "Development and Presentation of Externality Information Relating to Lignite-Based Generation for Minnesota Externality Proceedings": Program Funding: $250,000; Total Project Costs: $550,000. Objective: To provide technical and legal support including information and access to expert witnesses in the contested case proceedings on the application of externality values in Minnesota on lignite-generated electricity. The final decision in the proceedings resulted in the exclusion of North Dakota lignite-generated electricity from the most onerous provisions.

FY94-XVII-56: "Air Toxics Removal Using the IFGT for an Upgraded Lignite Coal Blend": Program Funding: $54,534; Total Project Costs: $109,068. Objective: To assess the ability of a condensing heat exchanger to clean the flue gas resulting from the combustion of a coal blend using an upgraded lignite fuel. Specific objectives included flue gas characterization (particulates, mercury concentration and SO2), particulate removal efficiency by size range, total and form of mercury removal, SO2 removal efficiency and thermal performance of the condensing heat exchanger.

FY95-XVIII-57: "Production of Enhanced Physically Cleaned Lignite": Program Funding: $85,000; Total Project Costs: $170,000. Objective: To produce ultra-clean Beulah-mine lignite. Specific objectives are emissions below 0.5 lbs of SO2/MMBtu in a fluid bed combustor and below 1.2 lb of SO2/MMBtu if used in a PC-fired combustor.

FY95-XVIII-58 : "Comparative Evaluation of Productivity of Prime and Nonprime Soils": Program Funding: $21,116; Total Project Costs: $42,332. Objectives: To provide the final year of a four-year study designed to compare the productivity of prime and nonprime topsoil materials in different topographic positions and to determine if the separate handling of prime or nonprime topsoil is necessary. As a result of the study it is recommended that the topsoil from these three soils could be mixed without significantly affecting the productivity of reclaimed land.

FY95-XIX-59: "Equipment, Engineering and Economic Evaluation for a Lignite Fuel Production Facility": Program Funding: $51,149; Total Project Costs: $102,649. Objective: To provide engineering and equipment information for a conceptual lignite upgrading process that includes coal crushing, screening, wet physical cleaning, drying, and briquetting. The engineering data was collected and analyzed and the preliminary plant design costs are estimated.

FY95-XIX-60: "Coal Quality Management System": Program Funding: $250,000; Total Project Costs: $810,565. Objective: To integrate, demonstrate and commercialize a PC-based hardware/software package that relates mine-coal characterization to coal combustion, boiler operation and utility performance. This site-specific demonstration is the Center Mine of BNI Coal and the Milton R. Young Station operated by Minnkota Power Cooperative.

FY95-XIX-61: "Lignite Resource Characterization and Evaluation for Mitigation of Ash Deposition": Program Funding: $113,984; Total Project Costs: $379,984. Objective: To relate coal quality to combustion characteristics. This site-specific project involves Knife River Corporation’s Beulah Mine and the adjacent Coyote Station.

FY95-XX-62: "Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program": Program Funding: $80,000; Total Project Costs: $3,580,000. Objective: To provide data and models on the behavior of potentially toxic metals. CATM goals are to develop methods to prevent or reduce air toxic metal emissions, predict the fate of metals, determine the effectiveness of control devices, and identify new control technologies.

FY95-XX-63: "Oxidation of North Dakota Scrubber Sludge for Soil Amendment and Production of Gypsum": Program Funding: $40,000; Total Project Costs: $120,000. Objective: To determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing a lower-quality agricultural soil amendment and secondarily, higher-quality gypsum for manufacturing purposes.

FY96-XXI-64: "Low-Cost Metal Adsorbents from Lignite": Program Funding: $27,000; Total Project Costs: $54,000. Objective: To determine the commercial feasibility of using lignite for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water sources.

FY96-XXI-65: "Development of Resins from DGC's 3-Methylcatechol": Program Funding: $75,000; Total Project Costs: $185,614. Objective: To determine if 3-methylcatechol from DGC's gasification liquid stream can be used to synthesis resins used to produce glues for the manufacture of wood products such as particle board and plywood.

FY96-XXIII-66: "Development of Anode Binder and Asphalt Substitutes from DGC's Tar Oil Pitch": Program Funding: $60,000; Total Project Costs: $150,250. Objective: To produce and evaluate pitch from Dakota Gasification Company's tar-oil as a binder in carbon anodes.

FY96-XXIII-67: "Investigation of Techniques for Obtaining NOx Reductions by Modifying the Combustion Inside a Cyclone Barrel Burning Lignite": Program Funding: $88,938; Total Project Costs: $177,870. Objective: To determine if NOx reductions can be achieved by modifying combustion inside the cyclone barrel without significantly and adversely impacting the operation, maintenance, reliability, or capacity of the cyclone.

FY97-XXIV-68: "Reducing the Management Variable in Assessing Reclamation Success": Program Funding: $16,118; Total Project Costs: $32,236. Objective: To compare yields and management practices between undisturbed and reclaimed land. A goal of this study is to reduce the land management practices variable for comparing yields on undisturbed and reclaimed land.

FY97-XXIV-69: "Technical and Economic Feasibility Study for Utilization of North Dakota Lignite Bottom Ash": Program Funding: $10,000; Total Project Costs: $20,000. Objective: To evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using North Dakota lignite in common applications such as deicing and skid control, road subbase, and aggregate for concrete and asphalt.

FY97XXIV-70: "Development of a Coal Combustion By-Products Utilization Workshop": Program Funding: $10,000; Total Project Costs: $32,250. Objective: To conduct a workshop on the use of coal combustion by-products. The purpose of this project is to increase the use of coal combustion by-products.

FY97-XXV-71: "Coal Sampling System": Program Funding: $49,720; Total Project Costs: $104,271. Objective: To purchase, install and test a coal sampling system that will collect coal samples from the feed system of an individual cyclone-fired boiler at the Milton R. Young Station.

FY97-XXV-72: "Implementation of Regional Lignite Energy Marketing Plan": Program Funding: $825,000; Total Project Costs: $1,650,000. Objectives: To improve the public image of coal in the region and to promote the use of coal as a low-cost energy source.

FY97-XXVI-73: "Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash in Flowable Fill Applications": Program Funding: $37,319; Total Project Costs: $152,632. Objective: To demonstrate through laboratory and field evaluation the use of fluidized bed combustion ash from the Montana-Dakota-Utilities Heskett plant in construction application.

FY97-XXVII-74: "Reclaimed Grassland Management for Increased Plant Diversity": Program Funding: $46,410; Total Project Costs: $156,060. Objective: To evaluate and prescribe livestock grazing and haying strategies to improve plant species diversity and seasonal balance of reclaimed native grasslands.

FY97-XXVII-75: "Development of Concrete Admixtures from DGC's Catechols": Program Funding: $70,000; Total Project Costs: $144,000. Objective: To evaluate the use of catechols derived from DGC's crude phenol stream as a concrete admixture. Additives are included in concrete to reduce water requirement, increase strength, and maintain flow characteristics.

FY97-XXXVII-76: "Optimizing Performance of the Heskett Station": Program Funding: $55,000; Total Project Costs: $183,000. Objective: To evaluate the use of limestone as the bed material in MDU's Heskett fluidized-bed combustor.

FY97-XXVIII-77: "Evaluation of Market Potential for North Dakota Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum": Program Funding: $23,500; Total Project Costs: $47,000. Objective: To evaluate the markets for gypsum derived from raw flue-gas desulfurization sludge at the Coal Creek Station.

FY97-XXVII-79: "Mercury Formation and Fate": Program Funding: $120,000; Total Project Costs: $400,000. Objective: To determine the abundance and forms of mercury in flue gas emitted from Milton R. Young and Coal Creek Station.

FY98-XXX-83: "Matching Coal Quality and Boiler Operation": Program Funding: $260,050; Total Project Costs: $1,227,415. Objective: To reduce oil consumption in cyclone-fired boilers by increasing coal quality control, optimizing boiler operations, and evaluating boiler design. A secondary objective: To evaluate changes in operation and coal quality on NOx and SO2 compliance, furnace slagging and fouling, and electrostatic precipitator performance.

FY99-XXXI-86: "Demonstration of North Dakota Lignite Bottom Ash in Road Construction": Program Funding: $32,000; Total Project Costs: $69,516. Objective: To demonstrate the use of bottom ash in a road construction project to be located in Mapleton, North Dakota.

FY99-XXXI-87: "Bench-Scale Tests to Evaluate Mercury Fly Ash Interactions": Program Funding: $40,000; Total Project Costs: $2,425,641. Objective: To develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of toxic metals during coal combustion, to develop improved models describing the formation, and to use the improved models to predict trace toxics formation.

FY99-XXXI-88: "Fish Consumption Survey: Minnesota and North Dakota": Program Funding: $39,000; Total Project Costs: $130,000. Objective: To determine the fish-eating tendencies of people in North Dakota and Minnesota. The project will focus on the general public but will include women of childbearing age and Native Americans.

FY99-XXXII-89: "Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program": Program Funding: $75,000; Total Project Costs: $3,892,400. Objective: To evaluate factors affecting emission of air toxic metals from coal-fired facilities, and development and evaluation of control technologies. A continuation of project FY95-XX-62.

FY99-XXXIII-90: "Commercial Demonstration of MDU Controlled Density Fill (CDF)": Program Funding: $97,115; Total Project Costs: $358,375. Objective: To establish a range of specifications for application of MDU CDF, evaluate environmental properties, and demonstration use at a commercial scale.

FY99-XXXIII-91: "Investigation of Paste Technology for CCB Disposal and Mine Reclamation": Program Funding: $100,000; Total Project Costs: $400,000. Objective: To develop paste technology to incorporate the Coal Creek Station's fly ash into a stable paste, demonstrate application at the mine, and evaluate mechanical and environmental performance.

FY00-XXXIV-93: "Mercury Speciation Sampling at Great River Energy's Stanton Station": Program Funding: $44,000; Total Project Costs: $135,998. Three specific objectives: To meet mandated requirements of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Information Collection Request (ICR); to determine mercury mass balance across the Stanton Power Plant; to determine forms and abundance of mercury emitted from Stanton Power Plant.

FY00-XXXIV-94: "Lignite Testing in an Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasifier": Program Funding: $239,970; Total Project Costs: $709,970. Objective: To test North Dakota lignite in a novel gasifier as part of an advanced integrated gasification combined cycle electric-power generation system.

FY00-XXXIV-95: "Powdered Activated Carbon from North Dakota Lignite: An Option for Disinfection By-Product Control in Water Treatment Plants": Program Funding: $30,000; Total Project Costs: $160,000. Objective: To evaluate the use of lignite-derived powdered activated carbon to remove naturally occurring organic matter from raw water prior to disinfection.

FY00-XXXIV-96: "Demonstration of Lignite Ash for Feedlot Surfaces": Program Funding: $116,160; Total Project Costs: $531,360. Objective: To demonstrate the benefit of North Dakota lignite coal combustion byproducts on feedlot surfaces.

FY00-XXXIV-97: "Demonstration of North Dakota Lignite Flyash in Haulroad Construction": Program Funding: $59,426; Total Project Costs: $118,852. Objective: To demonstrate the benefits of using fly ash in construction of unpaved roads. Coal Creek Station fly ash will be blended with spoils and subsoil and used in the construction of subgrade and subcut for a mining haulroad at The Falkirk Mine.

FY00-XXXIV-98: "Implementation of Regional Lignite Energy Marketing Plan": Program Funding: $975,000; Total Project Costs: $1,950,000. Objectives: To improve the public image and promote the use of coal, to build a public support base, to ensure growth of coal-based electricity, and to assist in the development of energy and environmental policies.

FY00-XXXIV-99: "North Dakota Children's Health Study": Program Funding: $83,333; Total Project Costs: $250,000. Objective: To establish prevalence rates and compare respiratory symptoms in kindergarten through sixth grade students living in "coal country" and an in-state area removed from "coal country".

FY00-XXXVI-100: "Evaluation of Potential SCR Catalyst Blinding During Coal Combustion": Program Funding: $200,000; Total Project Costs: $733,333. Objectives: To determine the potential of low-rank coal ash to cause blinding or masking of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysis and to determine the degree of elemental mercury conversion across the catalysis.

FY00-XXXVI-101: "Lignite Fuel Enhancement Incremental Moisture Reduction Project Phase I": Program Funding: $161,000; Total Project Costs: $322,666. Objectives: To use waste heat to assist in incremental moisture reduction of lignite and to improve the efficiency of the power plant operation.

FY01-XXXVII-102: "Reclaimed Grassland Management for Increased Plant Diversity": Program Funding: $32,250; Total Project Costs: $111,720. Objective: To evaluate livestock grazing and haying strategies as a means for improving plant diversity and seasonality on reclaimed native grasslands.

FY01-XXXVII-103: "Mercury Control Options Evaluation at Coal Creek Station, Underwood, North Dakota and Stanton Station, Stanton, North Dakota": Program Funding: $95,000; Total Project Costs: $190,000. Objective: To evaluate options for minimizing or controlling mercury air emissions from Great River Energy's Stanton and Coal Creek Stations.

FY01-XXXVII-104: "Lignite Vision 21 Project Phase II Transmission Studies": Program Funding: $140,000; Total Project Costs: $300,000. Objective: To analyze the impact of a new site-specific Lignite Vision 21 power plant on the dynamic response of the electric transmission lines and determine transmission costs associated with additional transmission requirements.

FY01-XXXVII-105: "Pilot Scale Study of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts at Coal Creek Station, Underwood, ND": Program Funding: $92,000; Total Project Costs: $1,268,600. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of catalyst materials to oxidize elemental mercury content in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants. Also, testing of mercury removal in a pilot wet scrubber will be conducted.

FY02-XLII-108: "Low Temperature NOx Reduction Using High Sodium Lignite": Program Funding: $160,000; Total Project Costs: $1,020,000. Objective: To evaluate the use of High-sodium lignite-derived chars to reduce NOx emissions from Cycle Fired Boilers. A secondary objective is to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury to ionic mercury. The NOx reduction and mercury oxidation processes are to be demonstration in a circulating fluid-bed reactor.

FY02-XLIV-110: "Biomass Impacts on SCR Performance": Program Funding: $120,000; Total Project Costs: $400,000. Objective: To determine fundamental mechanisms of NOx reduction and potential blinding of selective catalytic reduction catalysts using biomass and lignite.

FY02-XLIV-111: "Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program Continuation of Membership": Program Funding: $75,000; Total Project Costs: $3,750,000. Objective: To further the understanding of the behavior of potential toxic metals in coal-fired utilities, other fossil fuel systems, waste-to-energy systems and waste incinerators. A specific objective of the CATM program is the study of the fate and control of mercury emissions from coal-fired systems.

FY02-XLIV-112: "Mercury Control Options Evaluation, Phase II Stanton Station": Program Funding: $80,000; Total Project Costs: $220,000. Objective: To evaluate mercury control options at the Stanton Station. Specific objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemical additives to convert elemental mercury to ionic mercury and to evaluate the effectiveness of the MerCap technology based on the use of gold plates inserted in the combustion gas stream to absorb mercury.

FY02-XLV-113: "Anaerobic Treatment of Dakota Gasification Company Stripped Gas Liquor": Program Funding: $130,000; Total Project Costs: $380,000. Objective: To develop a more efficient method to remove organics from stripped gas liquor effluent. Specific objectives are to develop an anaerobic biological process to degrade organic impurities to reduce heat exchanger fouling thereby reducing cooling tower odors and drift.

FY02-XLV-114: "Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coals": Program Funding: $150,000; Total Project Costs: $833,000. Objective: To develop cost-effective elemental mercury control technologies for utilities burning lignite coals. Specific Objectives: To develop an understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents; Identify candidate chemical agents and sorbents and conduct laboratory screening tests; Conduct pilot scale tests to identify candidate sorbents for future field tests at a lignite-fired plant.

FY02-XLVI-115: "Implementation of Regional Lignite Energy Marketing Plan": Program Funding: $975,000; Total Project Costs: $1,950,000. Objective: Improve overall public regional image of coal and promote the use of coal as a low-cost, efficient and environmentally compatible energy source to ensure the continued utilization and growth of coal-based electrical energy.

FY03-XLVII-116: "Long-Term Mercury Modeling at ND Power Plants": Program Funding: $129,000; Total Project Costs: $446,667. Objective: Conduct long-term monitoring of mercury emissions at the Milton R. Young Unit 2 and R. M. Heskett Unit 2 plants to determine emission levels and variations due to coal and operations, and to quantify levels of oxidized versus elemental mercury.

FY03-XLVIII-117: "Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilization": Program Funding: $37,500; Total Project Costs: $1,600,000. Objective: Evaluate potential impacts of mercury and other air toxic elements on the management of coal combustion by-products (long-term storage and utilization products).

FY03-XLIV-118: "Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coals - Phase II, Field Testing of Slipstream Technology": Program Funding: $200,000; Total Project Costs: $1,100,000. Objective: Using a slip-stream baghouse (up to nominal 10 MW), demonstrate a low-cost mercury control using activated char at Saskatchewan Power's lignite-fired Popular River power.

FY03-XLIV-119: "Impact of SCR Catalyst on Mercury Oxidation in Lignite-Fired Combustion Systems": Program Funding: $30,000; Total Project Costs: $100,000. Objective: Mercury measurements will be conducted upstream and downstream of the slipstream SCR catalyst bed to determine if mercury oxidation occurs and to quantify long-term declining oxidation due to aging of the catalyst or due to lignite-derived flue gas contaminants.

FY03-XLIV-120: "Pilot- and Full-Scale Demonstration of Advanced Control Technologies for Lignite-Fired Power Plants": Program Funding: $150,000; Total Project Costs: $1,300,000. Objective: Based on previous efforts, continue development of the selected elemental mercury emission control processes: 1) Activated carbon injection upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement; 2) Mercury oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers; 3) Enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts; and 4) Mercury absorption using advanced absorption inserts inside baghouse fabric filters.

FY03-XLIV-121: "Lignite Fuel Enhancement: Incremental Moisture Reduction Program - Phase II": Program Funding: $235,626; Total Project Costs: $471,252. Objective: Using power plant waste heat, economically reduce the amount of moisture, sulfur, mercury and ash content thereby reducing emissions and increasing plant efficiency.

FY03-XLIV-122: "Thermal Pre-Combustion Mercury Removal Process for Low Rank Coal-Fired Power Plants": Program Funding: $139,403; Total Project Costs: $956,962. Objective: Evaluate a pre combustion thermal-based technology for the removal of mercury from low rank coals, both sub bituminous and lignite.

FY04-L-124: "Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems": Program Funding: $600,000; Total Project Costs: $5,732,195. Objective: Substantially enhance the capability of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from lignite combustion flue gas to achieve a high level of cost-effective control in full-scale field tests.

FY04-L-125: "Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD": Program Funding: $172,500; Total Project Costs: $2,150,767. Objective: Demonstrate a mercury "chemical addition" oxidation process in flue gas upstream of pollution control equipment, specifically, electrostatic precipitators followed by wet scrubbers. Host sites are Minnkota Power Cooperative MRY (cyclone-fired, ESP wet scrubber) Unit 2 and Texas Utilities Monticello (wall-fired, ESP, wet scrubber) Unit 3.

FY04-L-126: "Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control at Stanton Station, Stanton, North Dakota": Program Funding: $150,000; Total Project Costs: $843,858. Objective: Test a scaled-up version of the MerCAP technology, which involves absorption of mercury on fixed structures coated with a thin film of gold.

FY04-L-127: "Alternative Cover Demonstration Project at Coal Creek Station": Program Funding: $250,000; Total Project Costs: $500,000. Objective: A field demonstration to evaluate and demonstrate the performance of alternative earth landfill cover designs while maintaining equal or a better level of environmental performance for long-term storage of coal combustion byproducts.

FY04-L-128: "Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership (PCORP)": Program Funding: $240,000; Total Project Costs: $2,748,139. Objective: Identify cost-effective CO2 sequestration systems in the Northern Great Plains region, including: 1) Characterize and match sources, sinks & storage options; 2) Identify and address issues for sequestration deployment; 3) Identify promising capture, sequestration and transport options; and 4) Develop public involvement & education mechanisms.

FY05-LI-129: "Lignite Coal Test at a Transport Reactor Gasification Facility in Wilsonville, AL": Program Funding: $125,000; Total Project Costs: $250,000. Objective: Conduct short and long-term tests using an advanced IGCC Clean Coal Technology gasification system, Transport Reactor Integrated Reactor (TRIG), at a DOE facility in Wilsonville, AL. Project will ship 700 tons and 3,000 tons of lignite to the PSDF to resolve high-sodium lignite issues, followed by a 1000 hour pre-commercial test.

FY05-LI-130: "The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction": Program Funding: $50,000; Total Project Costs: $158,846. Objective: Explore interactions between mercury and selenium in experimental models designed to closely approximate human patterns of exposure. The project will examine the effects of dietary intakes of methylmercury and the protective effects of dietary selenium.

FY05-LI-131: "Investigation of Mercury and Carbon-Based Sorbent Reaction Mechanisms": Program Funding: $54,000; Total Project Costs: $240,870. Objective: Improve mercury capture efficiency of carbon sorbents through a better understanding of mercury-sorbent mechanisms. Project will produce information to develop more effective and lower-cost sorbent to control elemental mercury emissions.

FY05-LII-134: "North Dakota Partnership in the Canadian Clean Power Coalition (CCPC)": Program Funding: $75,000; Total Project Costs: $150,000. Objective: Participate in studies of advanced technologies for future lignite power generation, including IGCC and advanced steam cycles such as ultra super-critical steam cycles in conventional and fluid bed combustion power plants.

FY05-LII-135: "Assessment of Mercury Control Options and Ash Behavior in Fluidized-Bed Combustion Systems": Program Funding: $200,000; Total Project Costs: $900,000. Objective: Evaluate mercury control options in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) system to evaluate Hg speciation, identify effective control approaches and evaluate impact of chemical oxidation chemicals on corrosion and ash be agglomeration.

FY05-LII-136: "Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program - 3 Year Continuation of Membership": Program Funding: $45,000; Total Project Costs: $3,000,000. Objective: Continue science-based research on toxic trace metals under an EPA-Industry supported Center for Air Toxic Metals (CATM) Affiliates Program to further the understanding of the behavior of potential toxic metals in coal-fired utilities, other fossil fuel systems, waste-to-engery systems and waste incinerators. A specific objective of the CATM program is the study of the fate and control of mercury emissions from coal-fired systems. This project is a continuation of Projects FY95-XX-62, FY99-XXXII-89 and FY02-XLIV-111.

FY05-LII-137: "Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters: Phase II": Program Funding: $15,000; Total Project Costs: $245,000. Objective: Continue development of Hg emission control using baghouse filters impregnated with catalytic oxidizers to verify promising data from small-scale proof-of-concept tests. The concept would be applicable to utilities using fabric filter with capture of Hg and fly ash in a baghouse subsystem.

FY05-LIII-139: "Investigation of Mercury and Carbon-Based Sorbent Reaction Mechanism - Comparison of Surface Analysis Techniques": Program Funding: $19,500; Total Project Costs: $60,000. Objective: This project is an extension of LRC-LI-131. Additional fundamental work will focus on bonding on carbon surfaces using two more refined techniques of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The results will define carbon sorbent surface structural features before and after exposure to a flue gas stream, providing direction to improving effectiveness.

FY06-LIV-142: "Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction": Program Funding: $55,000; Total Project Costs: $385,000. Objective: Study the effects of dietary intakes of methyl of animal models to evaluate the protective effects of dietary selenium in order to resolve the significance of mercury-selenium interactions.

FY06-LV-143: "Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership - Phase II": Program Funding: $360,000; Total Project Costs: $21,487,892. Objective: Initiate Phase II activities by performing field sequestration validation tests leading to eventual commercial applications that include geologic storage and coal seams (producing coal bed methane) in addition to land management practices and wetlands.

FY06-LV-144: "Gasification of Lignites to Produce Liquid Fuels, Hydrogen, and Power": Program Funding: $100,000; Total Project Costs: $2,640,380. Objective: Provide essential information on the impacts of moisture and inorganic impurities on gasifier and gas cleanup technology performance to support power generation and coal-to-liquid processes by addressing key technical challenges facing lignite.

FY06-LVI-147: "Implementation of Lignite Regional Energy Marketing Plan": Program Funding: $2,400,000; Total Project Costs: $4,800,000. Objective: Improve and maintain overall public regional image of coal and promote the use of coal as a low-cost, efficient and environmentally compatible energy source to ensure the continued utilization and growth of coal-based electrical energy.

FY07-LIX-150: "Review of North Dakota Regulations, Standards, and Practices Related to the Use of Coal Combustion Products": Program Funding: $12,000; Total Project Costs: $36,000. Objective: Assess activities, laws, regulations, policies, guidelines, and use practices applicable in North Dakota pertaining to coal combustion products (CCPs) by working with industry, state agencies, and other stakeholders to identify any impediments or changes that could be made to improve CCP use.

FY07-LIX-151: "Upgrade and Refurbishment of a Bench-Scale Entrained-Flow Slagging Gasifier": Program Funding: $129,000; Total Project Costs: $354,000. Objective: To help overcome the challenges of utilizing lignite coal with commercially available gasification systems, a bench-scale entrained-flow slagging gasifier will be built by upgrading and refurbishing an existing bench-scale gasifier, which will be used for syngas production, cleanup, and separation testing.

FY07-LXI-152: "Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons": Program Funding: $40,000; Total Project Costs: $120,870. Objective: EERC proposes to evaluate the effects of storage on activated carbons (ACs) by evaluating the aging effects that might alter the physical or chemical properties of the ACs, which could impact the mercury capture efficiency.

FY08-LXII-159: "Demonstration of Coal Combustion Products for Green Roadbuilding in Medora, North Dakota": Program Funding: $125,000; Total Project Costs: $377,725. Objective: Demonstrate environmentally sustainable (green) roadbuilding using multiple coal combustion product (CCP) utilization application and, in the process, educate North Dakota industry, state agencies, and the public about environmentally sustainable construction.

FY08-LXII-160: "Center for Air Toxic Metals Program Affiliates Membership for the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC)": Program Funding: $45,000; Total Project Costs: $270,000. Objective: Develop information on the behavior of air toxic substances that allows for the prediction of the fate of air toxic metals, the enhancement of existing control technologies, the identification of new control technologies, the optimization of utilization and disposal of residuals, and pollution prevention.

FY08-LXIV-163: "Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE III)": Program Funding: $150,000; Total Project Costs: $2,401,174. Objective: Conduct research and demonstrate fuel ash-related problems that affect gasification performance and provide more reliable evaluation tools for gasifier design engineers and operators to assess coal requirements and optimize operating conditions.

FY08-LXIV-164: "Partnership for CO2 Capture": Program Funding: $300,000; Total Project Costs: $3,410,000. Objective: Conduct pilot-scale demonstration testing of selected CO2 separation and capture technologies for fossil fuel-and biomass-fired systems. The technologies may include solvent scrubbing, oxygen-fred combustion, and gas separation membranes.

FY10-LXVII-168: "Lignite Education Program": Program Funding: $156,000; Total Project Costs: $312,000. Objective: to educate teachers from North Dakota and neighboring states about the economic benefits, career opportunities and operations of the lignite industry, enabling them to educate their students about the industry.

FY10-LXIX-171: "Partnership for CO2 Capture-Phase II": Program Funding: $150,000; Total Project Costs: $1,860,000. Objective: This project focus is to develop promising technologies toward demonstration and commercialization that capture and separate CO2 from a dilute gas stream produced by combusting fossil fuels. In order for this to happen, the program will focus on developing and demonstrating a range of CO2 capture technologies while achieving high reductions in SOx, NOx, particulate, mercury, and other gas constituents as required by CO2 capture technologies.

FY10-LXIX-173: "Evaluation of Novel Technologies for CO2 Capture": Program Funding: $50,000; Total Project Costs: $1,935,156. Objective: This project will evaluate technologies that have the potential to dramatically reduce the cost of CO2 capture from a dilute gas stream produced by combusting fossil fuels. The technology that has been chosen for evaluation and optimization is the Neumann System Group’s (NSG’s) NeuStream™ technology.

FY10-LXX-175: "Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program": Program Funding; $45,000; Total Project Costs; $1,000,000. Objective: This project will use a cradle to grave approach to solve scientific and environmental issues related to the production of energy and industrial processes in an environmentally responsible manner and to assist impacted organizations to meet pending regulations and control challenges. The focus of these efforts will be on air toxic metals with particular interest in Mercury emissions.

FY11-LXXI-177: "Annual LEC Education Seminar: Energy, Economics & Environment": Program Funding; $160,000; Total Project Cost; $320,000. Objective; The program involves a two credit, four day seminar to educate ND, MN, SD & MT teachers about lignite industries.

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Mailing Address:
Karlene Fine
Industrial Commission
State Capitol 14th Floor
600 E. Boulevard Ave. Dept. 405
Bismarck, ND 58505-0840
Phone: (701)328-3722
Fax: (701)328-2820
E-mail: ndicinfo@nd.gov
Jason Bohrer
Lignite Energy Council
1016 E. Owens
PO Box 2277
Bismarck, ND 58502-2277
Phone: (701)258-7117
Fax: (701)258-2755
E-mail: jasonbohrer@lignite.com

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