Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv)
The USDA has confirmed that Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv) has been identified in the United States for the first time through testing at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. This is not a new virus, nor is it a regulatory/reportable disease. Since PEDv is widespread in many countries, it is not a trade-restricting disease, but rather a production-related disease. PEDv may appear clinically to be the same as Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) virus with acute diarrhea. Producers will need to work with their herd veterinarian with if any TGE-like symptoms appear and as always, maintain strict biosecurity protocols.
- Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv) is a virus similar to Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE), another disease only affecting pigs. It is not zoonotic, so therefore it poses no risk to other animals or humans. Also, it poses no risk to food safety.
- PEDV has been identified in the United States in a small number of herds. The virus is not a new virus as it was first recognized in England in 1971. Since then, the disease has been identified in a number of European countries, and more recently in China, Korea and Japan.
- USDA, State Animal Health Officials, the American Association of Swine Veterinarians and veterinarians at the National Pork Board are actively monitoring this disease and will make recommendations to producers as necessary.
- PEDv is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and may appear to be the same as Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) virus with acute diarrhea within 12 to 36 hours of onset. Herd veterinarians remain well versed in managing TGE-like diseases.
- The virus is a member of the Corona family and causes clinical signs very similar to TGE (Transmissible Gastroenteritis) including:
- acute outbreaks of severe diarrhea and vomiting
- significant mortality (50 - 60%) in piglets 7 days of age and younger
- incubation in 1 - 4 days
- Laboratory testing is the only way to diagnose PEDv.
- As always, producers who see any signs of illness in their pigs should notify their herd veterinarian immediately to address the issue.
- PEDv does not affect pork safety. Pork remains completely safe to eat.
Intrastate Movements: Swine moving within the state of North Dakota
Effective March 5, 2014, a certificate of veterinary inspection (CVI) is required for all intrastate movements of swine in North Dakota. Swine moving direct to slaughter are exempt from this requirement. The following statement must be listed on the CVI and signed by the owner and the veterinarian.
“The premises the swine are originating from has not had any signs or a diagnosis of Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) or Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv) in the last 60 days.”
This requirement is being instituted by the State Board of Animal Health at the request of the swine industry due to concerns about Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv). Exemptions can be made by the State Veterinarian based upon a risk assessment. The swine must be inspected and the CVI issued within 30 days of the movement. For intrastate movement purposes, swine must be identified with either an official method listed below, or a management tag unique within the herd. Identification must be listed on the CVI.
(1) Official eartags, when used on any swine;
(2) USDA back tags can be used on swine moving to slaughter;
(3) Official swine tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been requested by a user or the State animal health official, and USDA –APHIS-VS authorizes its use, so as to provide identification of the swine;
(4) Tattoos of at least 4-characters when used on swine moving to slaughter, except sows and boars as provided in § 78.33 of this chapter;
(5) Ear notching when used on any swine, if the ear notching has been recorded with a purebred registry association;
(6) Tattoos on the ear or inner flank of any swine, if the tattoos have been recorded with a swine registry association;
(7) For slaughter swine and feeder swine, an eartag or tattoo bearing the premises identification number assigned by the State animal health official to the premises on which the swine originated; and
(8) Any other official identification device or method that is approved by USDA –APHIS –VS.
For exhibition swine originating in North Dakota, animals must be identified by an official USDA eartag, RFID tag, or by a management tag that is unique within the herd of origin.